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Density-based topology optimization (SIMP)
Topology optimized bone replacement for craniofacial trauma. The domain is patient-specific and procedurally-generated. Passive-void zones (not variables) for the eye, nasal and oral cavities are defined.
"Bridging topology optimization and additive manufacturing." T. Zegard and G. H. Paulino. Journal of Structural and Multidisciplinary Optimization 53(1), 2016.